Burebista (??–44 BC)

Burebista

Written historical sources offer us important information about the existence of some tribes union in the North of Danube (Romania nowadays) in centuries III and II BC. These tribes unions were united in 82 BC under the power of one king, called Burebista. So, the first state in the history of Romania was established; geographer Strabon gives us some information about this.

Burebista succeeded to unite all Getae and Dacians under his authority also because they worshiped to the same deities. That is why he based on the influence and on the persuasion of the great Dacian priest, Deceneu.

Dacian state power increased then by Celtic tribes defeat in Bottom Dacia region (60/59 BC) and by conquering, after that, the entire pontic seaside from Olbia to Apollonia. Burebista domination was over a territory between Slovakia, Northern Carpathian, Black Sea and Balkan Mountains. Around 48 BC, Burebista was called within a Greek inscription “the first and the greatest king in Thrace and ruler over all the land beyond and in front of the river”.

But he understood that the hardest threaten was the Romans’ one, who were leading Greece and Macedonia at that time. For this reason, when he saw that at Rome were two rival politicians, Pompey and Caesar, who wanted to take over the state control, Burebista tried to support Pompey against Caesar. But Caesar defeated Pompey and so, the plan of Dacian king to get a friend at Rome failed. After this victory Caesar was planning a campaign against Dacia. He focused in 44 BC a huge army on the Eastern shore of Adriatic Sea. But he was killed in the same year.

In 44 BC Burebista was removed and killed by the aristocracy that was dissatisfied of his increasing power. Burebista’s death provoked huge changes and disorders. Dacian Kingdom shared into 4 and then into 5 states.

Burebista’s death led to his kingdom unravelling, kingdom that had as borders: in the North: Wooden Carpathians; in the East: Euxin Pontus; in the South: Haemus Mountains; in the West: the confluence of Morava river with Middle Danube. After Burebista had died, political life continuity remained in the South-West of Transylvania, in the fortified area of Sarmisegetusa. The state power was taken over by Deceneu. He was a king, great priest and supreme judge. Under Deceneu, Dacian state had a theocratic (religious) character.

 

Bibliography:

    1. http://www.ro.biography.name/conducatori/94-romania/274-burebista-44-i-hr

 

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