Niels Bohr (1885-1962)

Niels Bohr

1885 On the 7th of October, Copenhagen, Denmark, the future Danish physician Niels Bohr was born. His father was a Physiology teacher. Since he was young he proved special abilities for Physics.

1906 When he was 21 years old he wrote his first scientific work regarding superficial vibration of liquid jets, work that was awarded with golden medal of Danish Scientific Society.

1911 He obtained the doctorate at Copenhagen having as thesis a study related to electrons in metals. He also went to Cambridge to work for Cavendish laboratory under J. J. Thomas’s leadership, electron’s discoverer.

1912 Bohr concluded that planetary model of the atom imagined by Rutherford must have undergone the quantum hypothesis of Plank. In this way Bohr could clarify atom’s stability and explain line spectra of hydrogen atom. He succeeded to theoretically calculate Rydberg’s constant based on the connection by which this constant is expressed according to the mass and task of electron and also on Plank’s constant, link that was established by Bohr.

1922 He was a Nobel Laureate for Physics.

1927 Within Theoretical Physics Institute, under Bohr leadership, a first physical interpretation of quantum mechanics was evolved by him. Bohr formulated his remarkable “complementarity principle”. After this the formulation of the laws regarding elementary particles by classical Physics led to two contradictory interpretations that complement each other. So, Bohr contributed to deepening statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics.

Regarding nuclear Physics, Bohr, in order to explain the process of nuclear reaction done by neutrons bombing, introduced the idea of a “compound nucleus” existence thereupon a nuclear reaction is produced in two independent stages: incident particle (the neutron) interacts with the target nucleus, gives its energy to nucleus particles establishing a complex system (compound nucleus) and then, after a long time, in comparison with medium life of excited nuclear states, it may disintegrate according to an independent scheme of the forming one. Bohr developed the model of nucleus liquid drop that led to explanation of nuclear fission (together with J. A. Wheeler).

Bohr was member of Scientific Academy in Denmark. During the two World Wars he actively participated to Danish resistance struggle.

1943 He succeeded to exile to Sweden and then left to USA where he worked until the end of the war for atomic laboratory in Los Almos.

1957 He was again Nobel Laureate for Physics.

1963 On the 18th of November, Copenhagen, Niels Bohr passed away.

Bohr was not only a savant, but also a fighter for getting closer the two peoples, to forbid atomic arm; he devoted his life for progress and science and also for promoting peaceful relations between peoples.[1]






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