André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836)

André-Marie Ampère

1775 Andre Marie Ampere was born on the 22nd of January, Polemieux, near Lyon, France. Since he was 14 years old he passionately read the all twenty volumes of French Encyclopaedia, edited by Diderot and d’Alambert, people who aroused his interest for natural sciences, Maths and Philosophy. He was dedicated to botany, Chemistry, Physics and Maths; when he was 18 he knew, except Latin, Italian and Greek.

1801 He became a Physics teacher at Central School in Bourg.

1805 He worked as a teacher for Polytechnic in Paris.

1814 He was appointed member of the Institute (institution that was founded after French Academy) due to his scientific works regarding differential equations.

1820 He drew the attention of physicists all around the world by his considerations regarding the action of electricity on the magnetic needle. Ampere also presented his discoveries within one of the meetings at Academy. Thorough theoretical and experimental researches related to interaction between electric currents and magnetism led Ampere to the formula of the first theory regarding magnetism and the discovery of electric currents interaction. By this theory Ampere showed the connection between magnetism and electric currents, two groups of phenomena that initially had been considered distinct.

1821 He was appointed experimental Physics teacher at College de France. His most important works are related to Physics.

1826 He succeeded to formulate quantitative law related to electric currents interaction: “The force two elements of the electricity action one on the other is directly proportional to the square of the distance between them.”

1828 Ampere returned to his scientific activity regarding Maths and published some higher mathematics works. He tried to make a classification of the sciences based on mathematic and philosophical principles. His brilliant works, extremely important for Physics, were acknowledged during his lifetime; yet, he had never had enough financial possibilities to make his experiments.

1836 He passed away while he was travelling to Marseille, on the 10th of July. Ampere (A), was called in the honour of Physicist and mathematician Andre Marie Ampere, became fundamental unit of electric current intensity measurement. 1 ampere is equal with the constant intensity of the current that going through two straight and parallel conductors of infinite length and of negligible circular section, under vacuum, one meter away from each other, produces between these two conductors a force of 2x10-7 newtons on each meter in length. Ampere is also the measurement unit for magnetic tension, equal with magnetic tension along a closed line, produced by a coil traversed by an electric current of one ampere intensity.[1]





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